Biodiversity

Bhutan Sacred Natural Sites and Biodiversity

todayApril 14, 2024

Background

Did you know that Bhutan, the last Buddhist country in the world, is home to numerous sacred natural sites that contribute significantly to the conservation of its rich biodiversity and cultural heritage? These sites, recognized as sacred by indigenous communities and institutionalized religions, play a crucial role in preserving unique and rare plant and animal species.

Key Takeaways:

  • Bhutan’s sacred natural sites are essential for the conservation of its rich biodiversity.
  • These sites are recognized as sacred by indigenous communities and institutionalized religions.
  • Preserving and protecting sacred natural sites contributes to the conservation of unique and rare plant and animal species.
  • Bhutan’s long cultural and religious history, intertwined with the landscape, has led to the creation of sacred places.
  • Sacred natural sites in Bhutan serve as a nexus of nature and spirituality, ensuring the resilience of both ecological systems and cultural practices.

The Significance of Sacred Natural Sites

Sacred natural sites have a profound significance in our world. These sites have stood the test of time, preserving our planet’s precious biodiversity for centuries. They are revered as abodes of deities and ancestral spirits, and hold a deep spiritual importance for many cultures. These sites are associated with healing, spirituality, and revelation, and are often used as temple sites, burial grounds, pilgrimage destinations, or areas for special events.

What makes these sites truly remarkable is their role in the conservation of biological diversity. Access to these sites is often restricted, protecting them from human interference and ensuring the preservation of their ecological integrity. Over the years, many sacred places have served as reservoirs for unique and rare plant and animal species, safeguarding their existence and contributing to the overall conservation of biological diversity.

“Sacred natural sites are not only important for their cultural and historical importance but also for their role in maintaining the ecological balance of our planet.” – Expert in biodiversity conservation

By recognizing the significance of these sites and respecting their spiritual beliefs, we can work towards a better future for both humanity and our planet. The conservation of these sacred natural sites is crucial for the wellbeing of our natural world and the harmonious coexistence of all species.

The Role of Sacred Natural Sites in Conservation

The historical importance of sacred natural sites cannot be underestimated. These sites have been instrumental in preserving our planet’s ecological balance and maintaining a healthy environment. They serve as sanctuaries for a wide range of flora and fauna, acting as vital habitats for various species.

Furthermore, sacred natural sites offer a unique perspective on the relationship between humans and the natural world. They provide a space for reflection, contemplation, and connection with the environment. This deep spiritual connection fosters a sense of responsibility and stewardship towards nature, encouraging individuals and communities to take action to protect and conserve the Earth’s precious resources.

The Ecological Integrity of Sacred Natural Sites

Sacred natural sites stand as testaments to the ecological integrity of our planet. These sites have remained relatively untouched by human activity, allowing ecosystems to thrive and maintain their natural balance. The restriction of access to these sites plays a crucial role in preserving their ecological integrity, ensuring that they continue to support diverse and thriving ecosystems.

Conservation efforts in sacred natural sites are amplified by the spiritual values associated with these places. The spiritual beliefs and practices centered around these sites create a deeper sense of connection and care for the natural world, motivating individuals to actively participate in conservation initiatives and protect the ecological integrity of these sacred sites.

Sacred Natural Sites in Bhutan

Bhutan, known for its high forest coverage, is home to numerous sacred natural sites. The country’s constitution mandates a 60 percent forest coverage, but currently, it has over 70 percent forest coverage. Bhutan’s protected areas spread across 10 different locations, representing various ecological zones and covering more than 50 percent of the land area. The kingdom’s history is characterized by the establishment of sacred religious sites by Guru Rinpoche in the 8th century. These sites, including monasteries, stupas, and prayer flags, contribute to the conservation of Bhutan’s natural resources and cultural heritage.

Bhutan's sacred natural sites

Bhutan’s Forest Coverage:

Area Forest Coverage
Protected Areas Over 70%
Non-Protected Areas Approximately 60%

Bhutan’s sacred natural sites are an integral part of the country’s commitment to biodiversity conservation and the preservation of natural resources. These sites, often encompassed within protected areas and marked by Buddhist landmarks such as monasteries and stupas, showcase the interconnectedness between spiritual beliefs and environmental stewardship. By recognizing and venerating the sacredness of these sites, Bhutan ensures the long-term conservation of its diverse flora and fauna, creating a harmonious balance between culture, religion, and the environment.

The Spiritual Relationship with the Landscape

The Bhutanese people have a deep-rooted social affiliation and profound interaction with the landscape, leading to the creation of sacred places that hold immense significance. These sacred natural sites, also known as “citadels,” have evolved over centuries as a result of Buddhism’s arrival in Bhutan during the 7th century and the legendary arrival of Guru Rimpoche in the 8th century.

The Bhutanese perception of the landscape has been greatly influenced by these significant events, which have shaped their spiritual geography. As a result, specific sites on the landscape have become home to autochthonous deities and spirits, transforming them into sacred natural sites. These sites serve as abodes for these entities and act as a confluence of both biological and cultural aspects of the landscape, forming a unique spiritual connection between the Bhutanese people and their natural surroundings.

Autochthonous Deities and Sacred Natural Sites

Through the lens of Bhutanese spirituality, the landscape is believed to be inhabited by autochthonous deities and spirits, each associated with their designated sacred natural site. These sites, revered and protected by the locals, are considered as hallowed ground. They hold immense spiritual value and are seen as gateways to other realms, sources of wisdom, and catalysts for transformation.

“These sites are regarded as sacred abodes, where the spiritual and natural worlds intersect in harmony,” says Dr. Tshering Tempa, a renowned Bhutanese cultural geographer.

It is this profound spiritual connection and reverence for the natural landscape that have positioned sacred natural sites as vital elements of Bhutan’s cultural tapestry.

spiritual geography

The Significance of Social Affiliation and Interaction

The social affiliation and interaction of the Bhutanese people with their landscape profoundly shape the spiritual fabric of the nation. This deep bond fosters a sense of belonging and unity between the people and their natural environment.

Local communities engage in rituals, prayers, and pilgrimages to sacred natural sites, further strengthening their spiritual relationship with the landscape. These interactions transcend beyond the realms of the physical world, fostering a sense of interconnectedness and a shared responsibility to protect and preserve these sacred places.

Sacred Natural Sites as Guardians of the Landscape

The high reverence and protection bestowed upon sacred natural sites by the Bhutanese people have played a critical role in conserving and safeguarding the landscape. The spiritual significance attached to these sites acts as a potent force in nurturing ecological awareness and fostering environmental stewardship.

By recognizing sacred natural sites as abodes of spiritual beings and embracing the inherent spiritual values of these places, the Bhutanese people have cultivated a deep respect for the natural world. This reverence serves as a bedrock for the conservation of Bhutan’s unique biodiversity and contributes to the sustainability of the country’s delicate ecosystems.

Sacred Natural Sites and their Spiritual Significance

Sacred Natural Site Spiritual Significance
Taktshang Monastery (Tiger’s Nest) An iconic pilgrimage site associated with Guru Rinpoche, symbolizing the triumph of good over evil.
Jambay Lhakhang A sacred temple believed to be the birthplace of Guru Rinpoche’s transformation into his wrathful form, Hayagriva.
Gangtey Monastery A site blessed by Pema Lingpa, a renowned saint, and treasure-revealer, known for its spiritual and historical significance.
Haa Valley A hidden valley considered sacred, known for its pristine beauty and as a gateway to the western frontier.

Conservation and Biocultural Resilience

One of the key benefits of sacred natural sites is their contribution to both biocultural conservation and ecological resilience. These sites serve as in situ repositories for healthy plant specimens and act as important reservoirs of biodiversity in their natural habitats. By preserving these sacred sites, we are safeguarding the regenerative potential of diverse plant species and maintaining the overall equilibrium of different ecosystems.

The veneration and protection of sacred natural sites also play a critical role in resisting the commodification of nature. These sites are revered for their intrinsic value and sanctity, promoting a deep connection between people and the environment. By recognizing and honoring the value of intact biodiversity, sacred natural sites provide a powerful counterpoint to the global consumptive values that often prioritize economic gain over ecological preservation.

Moreover, sacred natural sites embody eco-spiritual values that emphasize the interdependence of all living beings and the importance of sustainable practices. They offer a space for ideological freedom, allowing believers to resist hegemonic demands and maintain a symbolic order based on respect for the Earth and its diverse life forms. By cherishing these sites, we acknowledge the interconnectedness between humans and nature and cultivate a sense of responsibility towards the preservation of our planet.

“Sacred natural sites are not only repositories of biodiversity; they are refuges of cultures, guardians of cultural and spiritual values, and storehouses of traditional ecological knowledge.” – John Muir

The preservation and conservation of sacred natural sites worldwide are essential for the resilience and long-term sustainability of both natural ecosystems and human communities. By protecting these sites, we ensure the preservation of both biological and cultural diversity, honoring the deep connections between humans and the natural world.

The Role of Sacred Natural Sites in Conservation and Biocultural Resilience

Sacred Natural Sites Conservation Contribution
In situ repositories for plant specimens Preservation of regenerative potential
Reservoirs of biodiversity Protection of diverse ecosystems
Resistance to commodification Promotion of eco-spiritual values
Symbolic order that values all sentient beings Recognition of the interconnectedness of life

biocultural conservation

The conservation of these sacred natural sites is an integral part of our efforts to maintain the delicate balance of our planet’s ecosystems while respecting the cultural and spiritual values associated with these places. By upholding the principles of biocultural conservation, we can create a harmonious coexistence between humans and nature, ensuring a future that is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity.

The Role of Trees in Sacred Natural Sites

Sacred natural sites in Bhutan are home to a variety of highly-valued tree species, including oak, needlewood, alder, and walnut. These trees not only contribute to the ecological significance of these sites but also play a crucial role in sustaining human communities and promoting biocultural resilience.

The ecological significance of these highly-valued tree species cannot be overstated. They provide essential resources to the village subsistence economy, such as fodder, fuelwood, timber, and medicine. These trees serve as a lifeline for the local communities, meeting their daily needs and supporting their livelihoods.

Moreover, these trees have a regenerative potential that ensures the long-term sustainability of the ecosystem. Resource harvest from these sacred sites is strictly prohibited, allowing the trees to regenerate and thrive. This conservation measure serves as a refuge for ecologically significant flora and fauna, preserving the delicate balance of the ecosystem.

The prevalence of these highly-valued tree species highlights their importance in maintaining biocultural resilience. By providing vital resources and serving as refugia for biodiversity, these trees support the interdependence between human communities and the natural environment. They contribute to the preservation of traditional knowledge and practices, ensuring cultural continuity and ecological sustainability.

The Role of Highly-Valued Tree Species in Sacred Natural Sites:

Tree Species Ecological Significance
Oak Provides timber and acorns for wildlife
Needlewood Offers fuelwood and shelter for birds
Alder Supports soil stabilization and nitrogen fixation
Walnut Produces valuable timber and nourishing nuts

These highly-valued tree species not only contribute to the economic and ecological well-being of local communities but also enhance the spiritual and cultural significance of the sacred natural sites. Their presence in these revered landscapes serves as a reminder of the deep connection between humans and nature, reinforcing the need for conservation and the preservation of biocultural resilience.

highly-valued tree species

Incorporating Local Traditions in Buddhism

Himalayan Buddhism in Bhutan embraces the incorporation of deities from the local culture into its religious practices. These local deities are revered as protectors of Buddhism and are associated with specific sites on the landscape. By integrating these deities into their faith, Bhutanese Buddhists have not only preserved forested landscapes but also promoted sustainability in their communities.

Bhutan’s rich cultural and religious history, intricately woven with the landscape, has given rise to a unique form of traditional ecological knowledge. This knowledge, passed down through generations, contributes to both cultural continuity and ecological resilience. It reinforces the value of forest preservation, highlighting the importance of maintaining a harmonious relationship with nature.

Through the incorporation of local traditions in their religious practices, Bhutanese Buddhists have developed a deep appreciation for the interconnectedness of all living beings and the need for sustainable coexistence. This perspective aligns with their commitment to protect the environment and uphold the value of forest preservation for future generations.

“We have learned from our ancestors that the preservation of our sacred forests ensures the well-being of not just our communities, but also the diverse flora and fauna that call these forests home.”
– Tashi Dorji, Bhutanese Buddhist Monk

Sustainability and Forest Preservation

The incorporation of deities and local traditions in Buddhism has fostered a deep-rooted sense of sustainability among Bhutanese communities. By recognizing the spiritual significance of their natural surroundings, they have developed practices that promote the preservation of forests and the sustainable use of resources.

Bhutanese villagers understand that their forests are not just sources of timber or livelihoods, but vital ecosystems that support a wide array of plant and animal species. They have recognized that the preservation of these forests is essential for maintaining ecological balance, protecting biodiversity, and mitigating the impact of climate change.

Traditional Ecological Knowledge

The incorporation of local traditions in Buddhism has also preserved and enhanced traditional ecological knowledge in Bhutan. This knowledge encompasses centuries of wisdom and practices handed down through generations, attuned to the local environment and its unique characteristics.

Traditional ecological knowledge encompasses a deep understanding of the intricacies of the forest ecosystem, the sustainable use of natural resources, and the harmonious coexistence between humans and nature. It serves as a guide for decision-making and resource management, grounding Bhutanese communities in sustainable practices and contributing to their resilience in the face of environmental challenges.

The combination of local traditions, ecological knowledge, and spiritual perspectives has created a holistic approach to sustainability and forest preservation in Bhutan. By recognizing the interconnectedness of all aspects of life, Bhutanese communities have established a strong foundation for promoting ecological resilience and cultural continuity.

A Sustainable Future

The incorporation of local traditions in Buddhism has played a vital role in shaping Bhutan’s sustainable future. By emphasizing the importance of forest preservation, sustainable resource use, and the interconnectedness of all living beings, Bhutanese communities have set an example for the world.

As they continue to embrace these traditions and pass them down to future generations, Bhutanese communities are ensuring the preservation of their cultural heritage, the resilience of their ecosystems, and the sustainability of their way of life.

sustainability in Bhutan

Spiritual Perceptions and Resistance

The perception of landscape-dwelling deities in Bhutan contributes to cultural resistance to commodification and the inroads of global capitalism. By maintaining a worldview that recognizes the spiritual value of forested landscapes, Bhutanese villagers resist the pressures of a capitalist mentality.

Ritual actions that venerate sacred natural sites represent an alternative worldview to commodifying forces and promote an ideology that values all sentient beings. The spiritual perception of the landscape allows believers to access uncontrolled possibility and provides a wellspring of resistance against hegemonic demands.

The spiritual values associated with sacred natural sites offer a counterpoint to the global consumptive values imposed by capitalist systems. By upholding the sanctity of the land, Bhutanese villagers challenge the commodification of nature and emphasize the intrinsic worth of all living beings.

Ideological Freedom and Resistance

The belief in landscape-dwelling deities fosters ideological freedom within Bhutanese society. It provides a space where alternative values, such as resistance to commodification and a reverence for nature, can thrive and challenge dominant ideologies.

In contrast to the capitalist worldview that emphasizes exploitation and profit, the spiritual values associated with sacred natural sites promote a holistic perspective that values the interconnectedness of all life. This alternative worldview offers Bhutanese villagers the freedom to resist commodifying forces and assert the intrinsic worth of the natural world.

“The spiritual perception of the landscape allows us to break free from the constraints of capitalist thinking. It reminds us that our well-being is intertwined with the well-being of nature,” says Tashi Wangchuk, a local community leader.

The resistance to commodification is not simply a rejection of economic systems; it is a reaffirmation of spiritual values and an affirmation of the intrinsic worth of the natural world. By valuing sacred natural sites, Bhutanese society upholds a symbolic order that recognizes the interdependence of humans, other beings, and the environment.

Embracing an Alternative Ethic

The spiritual perception of the landscape and the resistance to commodification embedded within Bhutanese culture highlight the importance of an alternative ethic. This ethic places value not only on material wealth and consumption but also on ecological well-being and the preservation of spiritual values.

Through their reverence for sacred natural sites, Bhutanese villagers reaffirm their commitment to an approach that cherishes the intrinsic worth of all aspects of life. This alternative ethic challenges the dominant paradigm that prioritizes economic growth at the expense of environmental degradation and the erosion of cultural and spiritual values.

resistance to commodification

Spiritual Values Effects on Resistance to Commodification
Promotion of interconnectedness Rejects fragmentation and fosters an understanding of the holistic nature of life.
Emphasis on intrinsic worth Challenges the reduction of nature to mere economic resources and asserts the value of all living beings.
Recognition of interdependence Undermines the dominant individualistic mindset and highlights the importance of collective well-being.
Alternative worldview Provides a different lens through which to view the world, inviting resistance to dominant economic ideologies.

The spiritual values associated with sacred natural sites in Bhutan provide an alternative worldview that resists the commodification of nature and challenges the dominant capitalist ideology. By recognizing the intrinsic worth of the natural world and promoting an ethic rooted in interconnectedness and ecological well-being, Bhutanese villagers carve out spaces of ideological freedom and inspire resistance against hegemonic demands.

Sacred Natural Sites as Spaces of Ideological Freedom

Sacred natural sites in Bhutan offer more than just reverence and spirituality; they serve as spaces of ideological freedom, providing a counterpoint to global consumptive values. These sites focus attention on eco-spiritual values, fostering a deep connection with the natural world and emphasizing the preservation of biodiversity.

Believers who venerate these sacred sites actively resist commodification, embracing a non-compliant stance towards the forces of global capitalism. By rejecting the categories imposed by a consumptive society, Bhutanese villagers promote a symbolic order that values all sentient beings and recognizes the intrinsic worth of living biodiversity.

“The veneration of sacred natural sites is an expression of our resistance to commodifying forces. We seek to reconnect with the intrinsic value of the Earth and all its inhabitants, rejecting the notion that nature exists solely for exploitation and consumption.”

In a world driven by profit and material accumulation, these sacred sites offer believers a sanctuary where they can reconnect with the spiritual essence of the land. By recognizing the spiritual significance of these sites, Bhutanese villagers reaffirm their commitment to sustainable practices and the preservation of the Earth’s natural resources.

The Power of Eco-Spiritual Values

Eco-spiritual values lie at the heart of the veneration of sacred natural sites. They inspire a deep respect for the interconnectedness of all living beings and foster a sense of responsibility towards the environment. By embracing these values, Bhutanese villagers challenge the prevailing global consumptive values and advocate for a more sustainable and harmonious relationship with the Earth.

Through the veneration of these sacred sites, Bhutanese villagers demonstrate their unwavering commitment to preserving the Earth’s biodiversity and ecological integrity. They embody a counterpoint to the dominant narrative of exploitation and consumption, showcasing an alternative worldview rooted in reverence and respect for the natural world.

A Symbolic Order Upheld

The veneration of sacred natural sites in Bhutan goes beyond individual belief; it upholds a symbolic order that reflects the collective consciousness of the Bhutanese people. This symbolic order recognizes the intrinsic value of all sentient beings and serves as a guiding principle for their actions.

Symbolic Order

Through the preservation and protection of these sacred sites, Bhutanese villagers reaffirm their commitment to maintaining a balance between human needs and the health of the environment. In doing so, they set an example for the world, showing that it is possible to live in harmony with nature while upholding the values of eco-spirituality and non-compliance with commodifying forces.

The veneration of sacred natural sites not only serves as a source of ideological freedom but also as a catalyst for change. It empowers individuals and communities to resist the pressures of global capitalism and assert their commitment to a sustainable future.

The Conservation and Resilience Nexus in Bhutan

The preservation of sacred natural sites in Bhutan plays a crucial role in the conservation of biodiversity and the continuity of cultural practices. These sacred sites, deeply rooted in the country’s cultural and religious history, are interwoven with the landscape, creating a unique form of traditional ecological knowledge that contributes to both the preservation of the natural environment and the resilience of Bhutanese communities.

By recognizing the value of biodiversity and promoting sustainable practices, Bhutanese villagers ensure the conservation of their ecological systems. The conservation of biodiversity is closely connected to cultural continuity, as the spiritual beliefs and practices associated with sacred natural sites have been passed down through generations, ensuring the preservation of cultural heritage.

“The conservation of sacred natural sites in Bhutan is not only about preserving the physical environment, but also about safeguarding the cultural traditions and knowledge that are deeply intertwined with these sites.”

Bhutan’s commitment to the conservation of biodiversity and cultural continuity is reflected in the country’s development philosophy. The concept of Gross National Happiness (GNH) emphasizes the importance of collective well-being, which includes the preservation of cultural and ecological diversity. This holistic approach ensures that Bhutanese communities thrive in harmony with their natural surroundings.

Ecological Resilience and Sacred Natural Sites

Sacred natural sites act as ecological refuges, providing habitats for unique and rare plant and animal species. These sites act as protected areas, safeguarding biodiversity and promoting ecological resilience. The spiritual significance attached to these sites reinforces the commitment to their conservation, ensuring the protection of the natural environment and the continuity of cultural practices.

In addition, the sustainable practices associated with sacred natural sites foster ecological resilience. Traditional ecological knowledge guides resource management, ensuring the preservation of regenerative potential. This knowledge encompasses sustainable harvesting practices, limitations on resource extraction, and the recognition of the interconnectedness between human communities and their environment.

The Role of Community Engagement

The conservation and resilience nexus in Bhutan is deeply rooted in community engagement. Local communities play a vital role in the preservation and protection of sacred natural sites. Their involvement and active participation in decision-making processes ensure the sustainability of these sites and promote cultural continuity.

Through community-led initiatives, such as awareness campaigns and education programs, Bhutanese villagers are empowered to become stewards of their natural and cultural heritage. This collective effort not only strengthens the bond between the community and sacred natural sites but also promotes mutual respect and understanding between humans and nature.

Conclusion

The preservation and protection of sacred natural sites in Bhutan play a vital role in the conservation of the country’s rich biodiversity and cultural heritage. These sites, recognized as sacred by indigenous and traditional communities, contribute to the preservation of unique and rare plant and animal species. By honoring these spiritual places in Bhutan, the conservation of biodiversity is firmly upheld.

Through centuries of spiritual beliefs and practices, Bhutan has developed a deep connection between its people and the natural world. The sacred lands in Bhutan, ranging from mountains to forests, have been revered and protected, ensuring the conservation of nature and cultural continuity. The wisdom embedded in Bhutan’s traditional ecological knowledge promotes sustainable practices and sets an example for the preservation of biodiversity hotspots worldwide.

In a world grappling with environmental challenges, Bhutan stands as a beacon of nature preservation. The integration of spiritual and ecological values in the conservation of sacred natural sites demonstrates the harmonious coexistence between humans and the natural world. By recognizing the interconnectedness of all life forms and the significance of these spiritual places, Bhutan paves the way for a more sustainable future for our planet.

FAQ

What are sacred natural sites?

Sacred natural sites are areas recognized as sacred by indigenous and traditional communities, as well as institutionalized religions. They include mountains, rivers, lakes, caves, forest groves, and coastal waters.

How do sacred natural sites contribute to biodiversity conservation?

Sacred natural sites play a crucial role in the conservation of biodiversity by preserving unique and rare plant and animal species. These sites have been protected for hundreds of years due to their spiritual significance, leading to the preservation of ecological integrity.

How many sacred natural sites are there in Bhutan?

Bhutan, being the last Buddhist country, boasts numerous sacred natural sites. The exact number is not known, but they are spread across the country and contribute to the conservation of its diverse flora and fauna.

Why are sacred natural sites restricted in access?

Access to sacred natural sites is restricted to protect their spiritual and ecological value. By limiting human interference, these sites can maintain their biodiversity and serve as reservoirs of healthy plant specimens.

What is the connection between sacred natural sites and local communities?

Sacred natural sites in Bhutan are created through the interaction and affiliation of local communities with the landscape. These sites are seen as abodes of deities and ancestral spirits and are embedded in the cultural practices and traditions of the communities.

How do sacred natural sites promote cultural and ecological resilience?

Sacred natural sites contribute to biocultural conservation and ecological resilience by resisting the commodification of nature and promoting eco-spiritual values. They offer a space for ideological freedom and provide a counterpoint to global consumptive values.

What tree species are commonly found in sacred natural sites in Bhutan?

Sacred natural sites in Bhutan are often dominated by highly-valued tree species, such as oak, needlewood, alder, and walnut. These trees play multiple roles in the village subsistence economy and serve as refugia for ecologically significant flora and fauna.

How does Buddhism incorporate local traditions in Bhutan?

Buddhism in Bhutan incorporates local deities into its religious practices, seeing them as protectors of Buddhism. This incorporation has allowed for the preservation of forested landscapes and the promotion of sustainable practices.

How do spiritual perceptions of the landscape contribute to resistance?

The spiritual perception of the landscape in Bhutan promotes resistance to commodification and the inroads of global capitalism. By recognizing the spiritual value of forested landscapes, villagers resist the pressures of a capitalist mentality and maintain a symbolic order that values all sentient beings.

What is the conservation and resilience nexus in Bhutan?

The conservation and resilience nexus in Bhutan is maintained through the preservation of sacred natural sites. The country’s cultural and religious history, intertwined with the landscape, has created a unique form of traditional ecological knowledge that ensures the conservation of biodiversity and cultural continuity.

Source Links

Written by: Jackie De Burca

Post comments (0)

Leave a reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


0%